Surgery While Pregnant

Pregnancy is certainly not the optimum time to have a surgical procedure however there are certain conditions when it is necessary. The most compelling reasons to have surgery while pregnant include acute appendicitis, gallstones that block the bile duct, torsion or twisting of an ovarian tumor and trauma to the abdomen that results in damage of an internal organ, bleeding or the threat of harm to the unborn fetus.

Appendicitis is sometimes difficult to diagnose during pregnancy however the location of pain is helpful regarding making the diagnosis. Patients with appendicitis sometimes have fever and abnormal lab results but this is not always the case. Although the appendix is usually on the lower right side of the abdomen during pregnancy is shifts towards the middle. Therefore, when attempting to make the diagnosis, a physician will examine the patient lying down and also tilted to her left side. If the pain shifts to the left side, the pain is probably from the uterus and not the appendix.

The safest time for a pregnant woman to have surgery is during the second trimester. An epidural or spinal anesthesia is safer than general anesthesia for many reasons.  It is more difficult to place a breathing tube down a pregnant woman’s throat because hormone’s make the throat smaller. The patient also has an increased risk of aspirating or having food or liquid in her windpipe as opposed to her stomach.

There should always be an obstetrician and pediatrician consultant on hand prior to and during the surgical procedure, especially if the patient is in her third trimester. According to the latest medical literature, there are no anesthetic medications that cause birth defects to the unborn fetus, provided the surgery is not done during the first trimester. The heart tone of the fetus should always be monitored during surgery. Because a pregnant woman has an increased risk of developing blood clots, it is strongly advisable to wear “compression” stockings during a procedures. These stockings are available in the hospital and compress or squeeze the blood vessels in the legs to promote better circulation.

Following these suggestions will greatly improve your chances of having a surgical procedure that will not adversely affect your pregnancy. Remember, a healthy pregnancy doesn’t just happen. It takes a smart mother who knows what to do.

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72 thoughts on “Surgery While Pregnant

  1. What if you didn’t know you were pregnant and the test they gave you before surgery came out negative. I had to have my gallbladder removed and just found out 5 weeks after surgery I am between 6 and 8 weeks pregnant. Would the anesthesia cause any birth defects. I am 39 and already high risk. I want to make sure my baby wont be harmed from not knowing..

    • Hi Charli, from your description it seems like you might have been 2 to 3 weeks pregnant at the time. The greatest danger for problems is between 6 to 9 weeks when the brain and central nervous system are developing. If you didn’t have surgery at that time you should be okay but please discuss this with your doctor or midwife. Hope this helps.

    • Hi Sarie,
      I can’t give medical advise but I can give an unofficial opinion which would be to postpone the surgery (especially if it’s elective) until after the baby is born do reduce your risk of developing blood clots in the legs. Could you do me a favor and “Like” me on Facebook? That would help a lot. Hope this helps.

  2. i had breast reduction suregry and just found out a week after the surgery i was around 3 weeks pregnant at the time will this affect anything

    • Hi Tammy,
      Probably not because the fertilized egg was just implanting into the uterus at that time. Be very careful from weeks 4 through 10 because this is the time that the baby’s brain and nervous system are developing. Try to avoid medicines and alcohol. Hope this helps.

  3. Hi, i have found this website helpful so here’s my long story (sorry). I had a heterotopic pregnancy, one at the f/tube was surgically removed while the other embryo in the uterus was left. After a week the doctor told me i had no viability and hence had a d&c. That was around week five. At week 13 i was shocked when i decided to have an U/S and was informed that i was very pregnant. I had gone to hospital with a case of ulcers and this did not make things any easier. Right now my concern is that am feeling so much pain bt the site of the incision. What could be wrong?

    • Hi Fai,
      What a story! The pain that you’re experiencing might represent the uterus growing as the baby starts growing. However, given your history, I would definitely inform your physician/midwife of your complaints. Hope this helps and best of luck with the pregnancy.

  4. Hi, i have a very important questioned and is really scaring n stressing me out.. i was 13- 14 weeks pregnant when i had to have surgery, they had to removed my appendices and they did a MRI for 45 mints now im really scared my baby might come unhealthy could you tell me or explain me the consequences of that please.

    • Hi Jenne,
      Please don’t be stressed out. Have you expressed your concerns to your physician? Did they explain the procedure prior to you having it done? Did you sign a consent form? All of your concerns should have been addressed prior to having the procedure done. I’ve included a link for you to read about pregnancy and MRIs. Buried deep in the article, it says “Pregnant patients should be informed that, to date, there has been no indication that the use of clinical MR imaging during pregnancy has produced deleterious effects.”

      I hope this helps and please share your concerns with your physician. Also, don’t forget to “like” me on Facebook.

    • Hi Meena,
      Is it possible for the procedure to be postponed until after your third month? It would be better in order to reduce potential anesthesia problems regarding the baby. Please be advised this is not formal medical advice, only my opinion but in the first trimester, the brain and central nervous system is still developing so you would want to avoid general anesthesia or any type of medication until after the first trimester. Hope this helps.

  5. Dr. Galloway,
    my wife and I just took a test this morning that came out positive.
    we will know for sure on friday if it true they will do blood work. . she is scheduled for a stint removal friday at 7am,
    would like to know the risks of going threw with taking the stint out while pregnant it wont be an office visit they do have to put her under.
    she has a ureteral stricture and we were wondering if how the stricture might effect my wife or the baby.

    • Hi Justin.
      I would discuss this matter with whomever is giving your wife the pregnancy blood test. If your wife has a ureteral stricture, it might be advisable to seek the advice of a high-risk pregnancy specialist, aka maternal fetal specialist. As a point of information and not non-medical advice I can state that the standard of care is to have regional anesthesia during pregnancy (i.e. an epidural or spinal) as opposed to general anesthesia.

      Good luck with the pregnancy and have a Happy New Year.

  6. On November 15th my wife went for several MRI’s and X-Rays for a back surgery she was having on November 30th. On November 30th we went to the surgical center early in the morning. They took urine and tested it to see if she was pregnant. The result come out that she was not pregnant so they went ahead with the surgery which lasted for about two hours. Almost 30 days later on December 26th she was not feeling good so she went and bought a pregnancy test. We found out that she was pregnant after taking three of the test. On December 29th we went a saw the Gynecologist and explained everything to him. He did not seem worry but he performed the ultrasound and there was a heartbeat even though we were not able to see the baby. He told us that she was eight weeks and five day pregnant. He told us to make an appointment with the genetic counseling doctor so that they can perform test to see if the surgery process would affect our unborn baby. We are both very afraid and stress for the safety of the baby. Any help will be great.

    • Your gynecologist is referring you to a geneticist which is appropriate. Hopefully, they will be able to do a prenatal microassay test which can be done in the early 1st trimester and should be able to detect any issues or concerns. I have to add the disclaimer that I’m not giving you medical advice but information. Unofficially, I can tell you that your wife was probably 4 weeks when she had the procedure. The most sensitive time for fetal exposure to potential toxins is between 6 to 10 weeks when the brain and nervous system are developing so your wife missed the “danger” period regarding potential harm. Please feel free to discuss these issues with your gynecologist and wish you the best regarding the pregnancy. Please keep us informed.

  7. I was 16 weeks pregnant (4 months) when I was turning 4 months about 15 weeks pregnant I started to feel some cramping and uncomfortableness but I thought I was experiencing growing pains I also had some spotting but I read that that could be normal. Please don’t just go by what you read on the Internet or books like what to expect when your expecting please be sure and call your gyn or midwife rite away! I never would of thought that the pain was actually my appendix failing. As soon as I turned 4 months I experienced excruciating pain out of nowhere so I called my gyn immediately and he told me to come to Methodist hospital rite away.. I got scared but I didn’t think the worst. When I got there they later diagnosed me with an infection because I had lots of white blood count but they did not know rite away what kind of infection I was having. They put me on antibiotics thru IV and Perks for pain. I denied the medicine for a long time till I couldn’t handle the pin anymore I was trying to keep my baby safe although the medication is supposed to be non harmful to the fetus. With a sonogram my doctor saw that my appendix looked inflamed so I was sent down to take an MRI.. It was hard for them to see the problem thru an MRI but I was pregnant so I was definitely unable to have a catscan. They came to the conclusion that it was for sure my appendix so I had the operation done and everything came out successful the baby and I was fine but I still had lots of pain and they said the pain was from the operation.. I saw and heard the baby’s heart beat the baby looked great and moving around it even looked as if it was waving at me with both hands. I was released two days after the surgery with more perks for medication since I still had so much pain. Again I hardly took the medication so imagine the pain I had. Two days later I experience more pain that even the medication didn’t work so I call my doc immediately and tell him I’m coming to the hospital.. While I’m waiting for the ambulance I feel something drop inside me and I start bleeding non stop from my vagina. I knew from there that I was having a miscarriage even tho I have never had one before. When I get to the hospital they give me an ultrasound to see the baby but they can’t find it in my belly. Then they found it in my vagina.. They say I’m having a miscarriage and I see the baby also in my vagina and I freak out it is the worst feeling in the world I am in a deep depression. I kept telling them that the baby will go back up I didnt want to believe that my baby was dead inside my vagina they had to keep showing me thru the sonogram that my baby was not moving and had no heartbeat. I later had to push both fetus and placenta out. I then found out that it was a boy. I wanted so badly to have a boy I just wished I could of had him 5-6 months later. Ladies please check and go over everything with your doctor. I would of never thought that my appendix will fail while pregnant. Apparently this happens a lot. I keep blaming myself but my doc is saying even if I felt some type of pain a little earlier on it would have been more dangerous then to have an operation but I feel that maybe I could of treated myself faster or something with antibiotics and maybe just maybe that would of cleared my infection on my appendix..and I wouldn’t of had it removed.

    • Thank you for sharing this story. I am hoping you had the support you needed at that (and this) time to make it through. I had to have surgery during pregnancy, something I never expected, and I didn’t know it was common. I can not imagine the pain you went through during the process, but I see you are strong and brave enough to share your story, and this is very encouraging because you are a survivor. May God bless you, and I am hoping you are pulling through. In reading your story, you are so open and humble. I don’t know you personally, but I will be praying for all women who have ever had to experience surgery during pregnancy. It is unimaginable to me, but it is good to know you are not alone in this flight, and in recovery. Written with love

  8. I would like to know why I stopped feeling pain after the miscarriage.. The hospital was saying that the pain I was feeling after the appendix surgery and before the miscarriage was from the appendix surgery.. But I don’t feel any pain anymore other then sorrow, closure, sympathy and depression of loosing my child. So how was that pain from the operation!

  9. Hi, I had to have surgery last week because I had a lot of pain from an ovarian cyst that was 8 by 6 by 6. I was told that although there was a large risk in removing it, there was a large risk anyway due to the distress I was in.
    It turned out the cyst gag twisted 360 degrees and was cutting off the blood supply to my ovary.
    Luckily they didnt have to remove it as they were able to untwist it and drain it which reduced some of the risks. All went well and a scan showed baby was fine.
    Im worried however as I was somewhere between 9 and 10 weeks pregnant, what are the chances of problems due to this?

    • Hi Nats,
      Glad to hear everything went well with your surgery. The condition you had sounds like ovarian torsion. Do you know if your physician did a biopsy and if so, what was the result? You might want to speak to your physician about doing an early genetics test to make certain that everything is okay with the baby and have an ultrasound at around 17 to 18 weeks to make certain that the anatomy of the baby is okay. At this point, it doesn’t appear that you have anything to worry about but would advise you to discuss your concerns with your physician. Let us know how things are going with your pregnancy and thanks for your comments.

  10. I had a similar incident
    I was scheduled to have a laparoscopic surgery to unblock my tube so I could get pregnant
    Before the surgery my husband asked to speak to the Doctor he wanted to tell the doctor that I was showing signs of being pregnant, sore nipples morning sickness. Doctor said it was just nerves because of having the surgery. They did the surgery using methane blue dye, we have the video tape as well of the whole surgery, When they were doing the surgery they found out that she was 8 weeks pregnant. They never did a pregnant test either which is a state law in WA ST.
    Baby was born a was blue from the dye, everything seemed fine and he was average in his growth chart. When he was 1 yr his head was not shaping correctly, they said from his neck muscle not being fully developed. The baby had to be a helmet for 6 months and that corrected the problem.
    When he was starting kindergarten he started to show signs of a learning disability. He was learning but not remembering things.
    Today he is 20 and reads at a 2nd and third grade level
    What I have been doing from the day we found out about his birth defects is make the hospital and doctor pay for their mistake.
    To this day they have gotten away with it
    Anyone have any studies they might know of that could put the blame on them
    The methane blue dye is what we think caused it


    • Thank you for sharing your comment and I am so sorry no one believed you. Doing a pregnancy test before surgery on a woman who still gets her period is basic 101 medicine. I hope you consulted with an attorney to determine whether you have a lawsuit. Thanks again for sharing that very helpful information.

  11. Hi, I am supposed to have left axillary biopsy and I am 4 or 5 weeks pregnant. They are trying to see if my cancer came back or not. Is this safe or should I plan to have an abortion? What options do I have?

    • Hi Keri,
      I would have to ask you several personal questions in order to give you a response. My first question is whether you have an obstetrician. I think you should get a consultation with a maternal fetal specialist (high risk obstetrician) for their expert opinion. Is it possible for them to do the biopsy with local anesthesia? That would be the best approach. Please try to see a maternal fetal medicine specialist as soon as possible. Thanks for your question and please keep us posted.

      • I have an obstetrician and i am going to have a talk with them before the surgery. I have another question. Is it possible for tumors to grow as a result of pregnancy? I lost my baby girl last year at 6 months due to preeclampsia that I never had diagnosed prior to the pregnancy. I am still on medication for it and since the day I found out I was pregnant I have been having alot of health problems. Very concerned if I would ever be able to carry. My 2nd pregnancy also ended early as a result of miscarriage.

  12. Hi
    I had my appendix removed on Feb 8 and on March 25 i found out i was pregnant i was told i was pregnant when I had surgery I’m due October 21 do you think my baby will be okay since i didn’t know i was pregnant. Also, was it to soon to tell for the doctors.

    • Hi Charissa,
      Thanks for your comment. From your history, it seems like you were 4 to 5 weeks pregnant at the time of your surgery. At that stage, it’s an all or nothing effect regarding anesthesia and birth defects. Since you’re still pregnant, I think the prognosis is good regarding the outcome of your baby but you need to have a serious discussion with your physician about future genetics tests and ultrasounds. I’m sure things will work out.

  13. I had an abscess near the anal opening during week 15, which caused me fever and chills, i got it drained with local anesthesia and it was fine… now i am week 18 and after the wound from the drainage has healed it came back again and i was diagnosed with anal fistula :( will it be OK to undergo a surgery to fix it? and what is the recommended anesthesia?


    • Hi Monia,
      Thanks so much for your comment. I would strongly encourage you to receive a consultation with a high-risk doc (maternal fetal medicine) regarding your condition. Most surgeries done on pregnant women use epidural anesthesia, especially if it doesn’t involve fetal distress. I hope this helps and wish you the best.

  14. HI,
    I had my appendix removed with keyhole 5 weeks ago at 13 weeks pregnant. Please can you tell me what the recovery time might possibly be. At first I was told 4-6 weeks but I am still extremely tired, have bad dizzy turns and the scar on my left hand side still hurts. Feel guilty about being off work for so long as I had only just gone back from my last maternity leave.

    • Hi Lorna,
      Thanks for your comment. The traditional recovery time is estimated to be 4 to 6 weeks but it depends on the individual. I encourage you to discuss your concerns with your physician since he or she will know your history.

  15. I had an operation to move my top jaw forward on 2nd may, I found out I was 9 weeks pregnant yesterday, the hospital did blood tests but said they were clear and kept asking me if I was pregnant at this time i didn’t realise I was so went ahead with the surgery, I am now worried that it has caused damage to the baby.
    Please help!
    Thanks Jade

  16. Hi dr. I just found out I’m 3 – 5 weeks pregnant. I’m scheduled for surgery in 9 days for L5 micro discectomy & decompression of sciatica root on my right back.. Will I still be able to have my surgery. I am stressing out as I desperately need this surgery because I’m suffering with immense pain daily.. Thank you for your time.

    • Hi Jasmine,
      Do you have an obstetrician? Have you spoken to him or her about this? Is the surgery absolutely necessary or can it be postponed until after the pregnancy or the second trimester?

  17. My friend is due to have a brest implants in a week and she just found out she is pregnant. She has decided to terminate the pregnancy. What is the best was round to do both operations and how long would she need in between them both?

  18. Hi,
    I need to have my spleen removed as I am suffering from a blood disorder (thalassemia beta – with a very low blood count) and my spleen has become huge, taking up the space in my stomach. So, earlier I scheduled a tentative date in August for this surgery. But I just found out that I am 8 weeks pregnant and my surgeon has advised me to go for the surgery ASAP. I did request to have this surgery after the 1st trimester, but he said that baby is suffering from chronic low oxygen flow, so the benefit of having the surgery outweighs the possible risk from it. Please advise me….what sort of anesthesia should be used and what are the possible tests I should go through to make sure that the baby is not born with any disability?

    Thank you so much!

  19. Hi Dr.,
    My daughter is 32 yrs old and was diagnosed with thyroid cancer on June 14. Her surgery was scheduled and completed on June 24. She received normal pre-surgery testing on 6/20, including chest xray and preg test. The pregnancy test came back negative. During her post op two wk check-up on Tuesday (7/9) at the Endocrinologist, we were discussing next steps for the cancer, which is low-iodine diet and RAI (radioactive iodine ablation treatment). During the visit repeat blood work was drawn for calcium & TSH levels and repeat preg test since she had not started yet. To our surprise, she is pregnant. Her last period ended approx. 6/7. She is now scheduled to visit a high risk OB/GYN, but we are very concerned, not only due to the xray, but due to the surgical removal of the thyroid and related hormonal changes. Needless to say, treatment for any remaining cancer is on hold. Any feedback you can give would be extremely appreciated.

    • Hi Beth,
      Congratulations on your daughter’s pregnancy and I’m very happy that she will be under the supervision of a maternal fetal medicine specialist. From your description, it sounds like your daughter was approximately 3 weeks pregnant when she had the procedure. Of course, she needs to speak with her physician but at this early gestation the baby is an embryo and the brain and nervous system hasn’t developed as yet. The most dangerous time to receive general anesthesia or medications is between 6 to 10 weeks when the fetal brain is developing. Most likely your daughter will have to take thyroid medicine (usually Synthyroid or a generic). My unofficial opinion is that she will probably be okay but she should also address her concerns with her physician. Best of luck to you both.

  20. hi Dr.

    im harold padura from philippines, may wife is pregnant for about 5 -7 weeks according to the OB gyne we have… she undergone operation for ovarian cyst removal.. many drugs and annesticia was taken during the operation and after as well.. is this harmful to her and to our baby? and is there a possibility that the baby could return?

    thanks ?

  21. had an appendectomy when I was 11-12 weeks pregnant. it was a very terrifying experience. my surgeon and ob were unsure of my appendicitis and had to go through a lot of pain without giving me meds. at the same time, I was diagnosed with placenta previa totalis so i was bleeding since 1st month of pregnancy. had an epidural and xray. please doctor I just need to know I;m scared of possible birth abnormalities or defects. i keep on asking my ob but she’s always saying not to stress about it the baby is ok please help thank you

    • Hi Dee. Thanks for sharing your story and concerns. You might asked your ob if you can have another ultrasound so that you could actually see the baby which might reassure you. The baby’s nervous system develops between 6 to 10 weeks so as long as you didn’t have the procedure between your 6th week and 10th week, you’re probably not at risk for a birth defect but I would strongly advise you sharing your concerns with your OB healthcare provider. Wish you the best. Linda

  22. My girlfriend just found out she is 2 weeks and 4 days pregnant but she was supposed to have her appendix removed in 3 weeks so can she still have the babby

    • Hi Anthony,
      Thanks for your comment. Something doesn’t sound right. An appendix is only supposed to be removed if there is an emergency. You might want to address your concerns with your girlfriend’s physician.

  23. I just had laproscopic surgery with general anesthesia while 5wks pregnant. Ihad been hurting for a week. So Monday I decided to go to the ER. They said I had to have the surgery right away. I won’t see my obgyn til jan. I started bleeding like a cycle. I called the unit and they said it was normal. Should I be worried.

    • Hi Jennifer,
      I know that my response is a little late but I hope that you got in touch with your obgyn. Ideally, he or she should have been contacted before you had the surgery. Hopefully, someone will do a blood pregnancy test to make certain that the pregnancy is okay and then repeat it every 2 or 3 days to make sure that the number is going up.

      • I thought they were suppose to contact her but they said it had to be done right away. I went in for a urine test and it said negative. So they said I should be getting a cycle. Im goin to my obgyn this month now to see what the blood test say. Thank you

  24. Hi doc,
    I had an appendectomy last jan 9 and iam 5 weeks 4 days pregnant today. My anesthesiologist told me that the spinal anesthesia will not cause premature contractions but they cannot assure the risk of congenital disease of the baby. Since am afraid, am planning to have an abortion this jan 23. What can u advice. Thanks.

    • Hi Aireen,
      I don’t know if you’ve had an opportunity to speak with your physician or midwife but a “congenital” problem involves the baby inheriting a problem from its mother or father. That has nothing to do with anesthesia. You might want to speak to your provider before you proceed with an abortion if you’re concerned about birth defects. He or she can refer you to a genetic specialist. Hope this helps.

  25. I went in Monday 2/10/14 for emergency appendectomy the surgeon said their wasn’t time to discuss my pregnancy issue I had to go under right away I had a mask for my anestsia the only reason I knew I was pregnant was because of mu blood test at the hospital at this time I found out today I’m between 2-3 wks could this affect the baby?

  26. Hi, im 10 weeks pregnant, the day I found out I was pregnant I also found out I have gallstones, I saw a surgeon 2 weeks ago and he told me I have to have my gallbladder removed, and also said there are possibilities of abortion. Im very scare and dont want to loose my baby, I have my appointment this week with a
    Gynecologist. I had a few gallstones attack some really bad other ones mild. I changed my diet almost to no fat…any advice please, what can happen to my baby with the anesthesia and the pain drugs?

    • Hi Maria,
      I apologize for the delay in my response. Hopefully your problem has resolved by now. Surgery is usually not done during pregnancy unless the gallstones block the bile duct or the patient has jaundice.

  27. Hello my name is Sonia, I just found out I’m expecting and so scared and nervous I had a miscarriage 4 months ago but also just got breast implants 3weeks ago :( I’ve wanted to have a baby so bad and Im worried I just did a bing mistake by getting my implants even thow the test came out negative before my sergury please help:(

    • Hi Sonia.
      Congrats on your pregnancy but please don’t panic. Is it possible that you became pregnant after the implants, since your test was negative before the procedure? One of the most dangerous times to have anesthesia or take medication is between 6 to 10 wks when the babies’ organs are forming. Since you were far from being 6 to 10 weeks, I think you’re okay but of course, you need to discuss this with your healthcare provider. Thanks for your question and the best of luck with the pregnancy.

  28. I went in to the er on the 17th and had my appendix removed all pregnancy tests were negative. Now a few days ago all my pregnancy tests are positive? Should I be worried?? Cant surgery cause a tubal?

    • No, surgery can not cause a tubal pregnancy but infections can. It appears that you might have conceived quite close to the procedure. Hopefully you’ve located an obstetrician for prenatal care by now. Best of luck.

      Dr. Linda

  29. Hi there. Im scheduled for kidney stone and ureteral stricture surgery tomorrow. I suspect pregnancy but haven’t done a test as yet as my cycle hasn’t been missed as yet. If I am between 2 to 4 weeks pregnant will it affect the baby???

    • Sorry for the delayed response. You probably had the procedure by now. Surgery between 6 to 10 weeks is not recommended because the baby is developing its nervous system and other important organs. Hope this helps. Dr. Linda

  30. Am five months pregnant and found out i have a gallbladder cyst and i want knw if my baby would be ok will it harm me r my baby ;( not feeling ma self since the news…pray for me.

    • So sorry to hear that you have a cyst but please be assured that the cyst on your gallbladder will not affect the baby. Hopefully, you won’t have surgery until after the baby is born unless there is a life-threatening reason to do so. Also, please voice your concerns with your physician or midwife. They need to know how you feel.

      Feel better,
      Dr. Linda

  31. Had intercourse and that caused a 7cm cyst to rupture on my ovary. Was rushed to ER and given a pregnancy blood test before surgery. It was negative. Surgery went well and I went home that day. 4 days later I was still sore so I went back to ER. 2 blood test confirmed I was pregnant(hgc 40) went back today and my numbers were 144. Very confused and scared that the rupture or surgery affected the egg/pregnancy

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